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They left the mouth of the Thames (England), in the summer of 1845. A total of 128 people, including officers and crew, divided into two ships, the HMS Erebus and HMS Terror . Its destination was North America and, more specifically, the Northwest Pass the sea route that traverses the ocean Arctic and connects the Strait of Davis and the Strait of Bering .
They were directed by Sir John Franklin Rear Admiral of the British Navy, 59 years old, besides experienced scout, who had already participated in up to three arctic expeditions. The boats spent the first winter in the small Beechey Island located in the Canadian Arctic archipelago, very close to the west coast of Devon Island. Three of the crew died and were buried there.
The Erebus and the Terror were found under the sea in 2014 and 2016, respectively
A year later, the situation was much worse. The Erebus and the Terror – found under the sea in 2014 and 2016, respectively – were stranded on the ice off King William Island, north of the Adelaide Peninsula and west of the Boothia Peninsula. They remained there until April 1848, when the men who were still alive (a little over 100) made a desperate attempt to reach the mainland.
They went south along the western and southern coasts of the island. His goal was to reach the mainland and, through the Back River, get help at a post from the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC), which had a monopoly of trade over the region bathed by the rivers and streams that flow into the bay of Hudson. Nobody survived.
Years later, in 1854, the scientific expedition led by the Scottish explorer John Rae met with Inuits who still kept personal belongings of the crew. They also explained that they had found lots of human remains in the same area, which gave rise to the hypothesis that the sailors had opted for cannibalism to survive as long as possible.
Precisely this is the detail that highlights the series The Terror recently premiered by AMC and produced by Ridley Scott. But it is not the only theory that was used for years to explain how all men perished, one by one. The most accepted hypothesis proposed that they died of poisoning with lead.
In 1984, the mummified body of John Torrington, one of the crew of the expedition, was found. After analyzing the bone, hair and soft tissue samples from the remains, it was found that there were elevated levels of lead. It was also believed that it was the fault of the canned foods, which had been badly canned.
At least until a group of researchers from the MacEwan, Lakehead, Trent, Waterloo and Saskatchewan Universities just demonstrated that the sailors " they were not exposed to a higher level of lead than any other sailor of that time, "explains Professor David Cooper, one of the authors of the study.
The analysis published in the journal PLoS ONE
the experts found that the distribution of lead in the samples from two different sites in which remains of the Franklin expedition were found were similar. They compared tissues from people who survived the longest with those of the crew members who perished on Beechey Island.
Their goal was to rule out three possibilities. First, if the crew experienced high exposure to lead during the expedition, the team assumed that the longest-surviving sailors (King William Island versus Beechey Island) would exhibit more of that metal residue distributed in their bones.
Second, it was suggested that lead levels would be elevated in the bones that form during or near the time of death, compared to the older tissues of the body. Finally, if exposure to lead metal played a key role in the failure of the mission, the samples would show a more extensive absorption than the British sailors of the same period buried in the Royal Navy cemetery in Antigua (Antilles).
"Taken together, skeletal microstructural findings do not support the conclusion that lead played a critical role in the death of Franklin and his crew," the researchers write.
The deaths of Beechey – who probably died at home from pneumonia and tuberculosis – and King William contained similar lead distributions, implying exposure well before the expedition. And the comparative analysis with the samples from Antigua "did not support the hypothesis that the distribution of lead among Franklin's sailors was unusual for that time."
The distribution of lead among the Franklin sailors was not unusual for the time
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The San Jorge de Estella of the church of San Miguel de Estella (Navarra), is irretrievable. This is confirmed by a report that the Government of Navarre has sent to the Office of the Superior Prosecutor, which investigates the intervention carried out in the sixteenth-century polychrome carving, reminiscent of Borja's 'Ecce Homo', by a handicraft workshop. the population of Navarre. The study finds that some of the actions that the piece has suffered are "irreversible."
The Association of Conservative Conservators of Spain filed a complaint against the company Karmacolor Estella, a craft workshop where the carving was painted without follow the procedures and mandatory techniques in cataloged artistic and historical objects, so that the report recognizes that the piece can not be returned to the state it was in.
The Navarre Executive has not initiated a sanction procedure for the intervention in the polychrome carving of San Jorge de Estella, given that the Public Prosecutor's Office is carrying out proceedings to verify the fact and the criminal responsibility of the participants.
According to the first studies conducted by the Historical Heritage Service, "taking into account the high percentage of polychromy eliminated, and the performance of irreversible treatments such as 'hydrate' the wood with flaxseed oil, it will be impossible to reach the objectives of integral and respectful conservation of this important piece. "
"A scientific restoration in the state in which the piece is now can return part of its historical artistic value, but without reaching the point of departure, since several of the actions have been irreversible," he says.
After the finalization on July 5 of the radiological studies (photos with X-rays) of the piece to evaluate the conservation of the layers with historical polychromies, it is expected that this Tuesday the tastings and tests will be started to assess the cost of withdrawal of materials added, fixation and recovery of historical layers.
The cost of the process of recovery of the piece will be borne by the parish
Later, the reversion of the sculpture to the state prior to the intervention will be faced and it will be in that moment when the damages that the original polychromies have suffered can be assessed, and then the best possible restoration will be assessed. The cost of the actions aimed at the restitution and restoration of the stature of San Jorge are borne by the parish of San Miguel de Estella.
The carving of Saint George on horseback was made around 1500, in the Hispano-Flemish Gothic style, and it is part of the Registry of Cultural Heritage of Navarra as an Inventory Good. It is a sculpture of large size (200×150 centimeters), made of walnut and weighing about 250 kilos, representing the saint on horseback slaying the dragon and whose author was probably the teacher Tarin or Terin, a native of Zaragoza and settled in Estella.
The Navarrese Executive has not initiated a sanctioning procedure for the time being
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The Committee of World Heritage of Unesco has resolved this Sunday, in the framework of its 42nd summit – which is celebrated until July 4 in Manama (Bahrain) -, to register Archaeological Ensemble of Medina Azahara ( Córdoba ) in the World Heritage List . After this recognition, Córdoba becomes the only city in the world with four heritage declarations .
As has been amply explained La Vanguardia the Caliphate city of Cordoba was built in the middle from the tenth century by an Umayyad western dynasty to be the seat of the Caliphate of Abd al-Rahman III and his private residence. The city grew in a short time, but later it was destroyed and the archaeological remains remained hidden for almost 1,000 years, until they were rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century.
From an artistic point of view, it is one of the monumental complexes more original within Hispano-Muslim architecture, because neither its structure nor ornamentation have been altered. The Bright City for Muslims consists of three terraces surrounded by a wall and would have worked on it about ten thousand people. A millennium later is still surrounded by legends and stories, the best known of which is that it was built for the love of a woman, who would have been called "Azahara".
The 16th recognition of Andalusian heritage
With that of Medina Azahara, Andalusia will have 13 enclaves recognized as heritage of which nine are world heritage sites . It is the Mosque of Cordoba; the Alhambra and Generalife of Granada; the Cathedral, the Alcázar and Archivo de Indias de Sevilla; the Doñana National Park; the Albaicín de Granada -extension of the Alhambra-; the Historic Center of Córdoba -extension of the Mosque-; the Rock Art of the Mediterranean Arc of the Iberian Peninsula; the Monumental Renaissance Ensembles of Úbeda and Baeza (Jaén); and the Dolmen Site of Antequera (Málaga).
To these are added three more than intangible cultural heritage which are flamenco, the revitalization of the traditional knowledge of the artisan lime in Morón de la Frontera and the Fiesta de los Patios de Córdoba. Only two properties in Spain have managed to enter the list of world heritage in the last six years and both are Andalusian: the Dolmen Site of Antequera (Malaga) and now the Califal City of Medina Azahara (Córdoba).
Extensive political follow-up
Until the capital of Bahrain have been moved as part of the Andalusian delegation, among other authorities, the Minister of Culture, Miguel Ángel Vázquez; the mayor of Córdoba, Isabel Ambrosio, and the president of the Provincial Council, Antonio Ruiz.
For its part, in the same Cordovan archaeological site have met on the morning of Sunday, to witness the retransmission of the decision of UNESCO, the Andalusian Councilors of Justice and Interior, Rosa Aguilar, and Health, Marina Álvarez, as well as the president of the Andalusian Parliament, Juan Pablo Durán, among other authorities.
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