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This is how a book is made

This is how a book is made

A book is many things but also a product that comes to market after a process involving several professionals . From the author to the reader, we synthesize that path in 13 sections 1. The author Joan-Lluís Lluís: "The most important moment of the year" […]

The role of William Morris

The role of William Morris

The borders that serve as background on these pages correspond to wallpapers that can still be seen in modern homes. And yet they were designed in the mid-nineteenth century. Its creator, William Morris (1834-1896), was a Brit who wanted to contribute to making the lives […]

The day that Franco entered Catalonia

The day that Franco entered Catalonia

On March 27, 1938, the troops of legionaries and Moroccans commanded by General Yagüe entered in the morning at Barbastro and Fraga and towards the Massalcoreig the first Catalan town occupied by the Francoist army. Yagüe had broken the republican defenses and after crossing the Cinca was very clear about his next goal, to conquer Lleida for Franco's Spain. Tomorrow, April 3 is the 80th anniversary of that battle that meant the irruption by force of the arms of a new political regime. The fall of Lleida meant for the republican side the certainty that the war could not be won. The Francoists would soon reach the sea by Vinaròs and isolate Catalonia, from the left bank of the Segre on the west and the Ebro on the south. According to historians, Yagüe wanted to cross the Segre and move towards Barcelona, ​​but Franco prevented it. The war would still last another year.

On the same day, March 27, the Italian and German planes bombed Lleida mercilessly, action that they repeated on the 30th with the intention of weakening combative morale. A large part of the civilian population chose to leave the city, and of these, many took refuge in neighboring towns or in towers of the huerta. Lleida was deserted and with large columns of smoke and dust, without water, or light, destroyed many official buildings and in practice, uninhabitable in much of the historic center. When the bombs stopped falling, came the 46th Division commanded by Valentín González known as El Campesino which had been commissioned, along with other battalions , the defense of Lleida.

Italian and German aircraft had bombed the city before intensely

The Republican resistance in the fields around the capital managed to stop the advance for five days, at the cost of many casualties caused by the national artillery , aviation and also units of tanks. Yagüe concentrated his forces on the road to Zaragoza and so on April 2 managed to take the hill of Gardeny at the same time that other columns infiltrated the road of Huesca.

According to the historian Joan Sagués , author of La Lleida vençuda i ocupada of 1938 (Pagès Editors), "the fights were very intense, street by street, house by house, and the republicans were already prepared for the worst, as well They burned down several houses in the center and with the Tabor Ifni Sahara and the 43rd Legion Banner on their heels they went to the left margin of the Segre and dynamited the Pont Vell although there are other versions that say they only dynamited the one of the Railroad ".

The fall meant for the republican side the certainty that the war could not be won

The blast occurred half an hour after the Francoist soldiers hoisted the red flag lda in the Seu Vella and will unfold through the historic urban center. The river was the no man's land that divided the war front. The Republicans went from defending the city to shooting at it. The Republic had lost Lleida, but the Franco occupation did not bring peace, since the front would still remain active for another nine months, until Christmas.

On the afternoon of Sunday, April 3, General Yagüe took possession of the Comissaria de la Generalitat in Lleida, the current Provincial Council, and after raising the flag on the balcony, gave a speech to the few Lleidans who had left their shelters. "I come in the name of the Caudillo to give you bread, peace and justice."

The fall of Lleida was considered a "heroic resistance" by the republican press, while the newspapers of the national zone highlighted that "Lérida returned on Sunday to be from Spain ", according to Sagués in his book. The strategy followed by El Campesin was criticized even by communist comrades, such as José del Barrio, who, in his memoirs, accuses him of leaving his post, hiding behind the fact that he was sick. It is confirmed that Valentín González left Lleida long before the bombing of the bridge and that he was transferred to Barcelona by ambulance.

The photograph, by unknown author, is the only graphic document of the combats between republicans and Francoists through the streets of Lleida
(Arxiu fotogràfic / Ateneu Popular)

The streets of Lleida were filled with soldiers and the day after the occupation, the civilian population began to get along with the conquistadores. Behind the General Staff of Yagüe traveled a large delegation of journalists, Spaniards and foreigners. These include the tandem formed by Víctor Ruiz Albéniz, who signed under the pseudonym El Tebib Arrumi, grandfather of former mayor of Madrid Alberto Ruiz Gallardón, and photographer José Demaría, better known as Campúa. The chronicle of El Tebib Arrumi describes a city "with very few people" and destroyed by the "iracundia" of the enemy "over all the churches and the magnificent cathedral". He also explains that some areas are dangerous because of the republican shooting from the other side of the river and refers to El Campesino, who "escaped yesterday afternoon at six, crediting himself as a disciple of Prieto at the cost of as much fugue as he is practicing." [19659002] In turn, the photos of Campúa show corpses through the streets, houses opened by bombs and the meeting between the population that greets its arm high, as well as many soldiers with guitars and bottles of wine. A fellow of fatigue of Ruiz Albéniz and Campúa following the campaign of Yagüe is the bartender Perico Chicote, who is in charge of the intendancy of the journalists and the general himself. Campúa photographs him walking through a city and drinking wine, celebrating the victory.

Despite Franco's occupation, the front would still be active for another nine months

The normalization of civic life and public services was very difficult. to be the city in the first line of fire and the return of the neighbors was staggered. At the same time, a harsh repression was initiated that led to the use of several religious buildings and the Seu Vella itself as prisons, the space before the summary trial and in its majority to the firing squad. According to Joan Sagués, "the nine months after the occupation were hard fights on the entire Segre front, like the Merengue massacre, at the head of the Balaguer bridge, where hundreds of soldiers from the so-called Quinta del Biberón fell killed by the machine guns of a Falangist column ". It is quite possible that the fall of Lleida was one of the warlike events that led Màrius Torres to compose perhaps his most famous poem, La ciutat llunyana, an intimate reflection on the defeat and destruction of "la ciutat d'ideals que volíem" Bastir ", and how to rebuild it with hope. "Ja no ens remains quasi cap més consol que creure i wait for the new architecture amb què braços més lliures puguin ratllar el teu sòl".

With a piece of Catalunya in his hands, Franco signed the day 5 of his handwriting the repeal of the Statute of Autonomy and three days later he shot Manuel Carrasco i Formiguera. Juan Negrín had to form a new government with a thirteen point program to negotiate peace. "Resisting is winning."

"It was my turn to sing the music that I like"

"It was my turn to sing the music that I like"

Behind the powerful presence of Michele McCain there is a versatile, splendid voice and an irrepressible presence. Singer, actress, composer, storyteller and positive empathy carrier, McCain has an overwhelming work curriculum. Brooklyn already practiced as a dancer before the public with 13 years before a […]

"I need new sensations because if I do not get bored"

"I need new sensations because if I do not get bored"

He looks happy, happy and relaxed. Although the latter, in the case of the eternally restless Manolo García, may be an appearance. In any case, the Barcelonian musician suffers satisfaction when he talks about Ray Geometry (Sony), his new album that will be released this […]

Beatty and Dunaway will return to present the Oscar to the best film

Beatty and Dunaway will return to present the Oscar to the best film

One year after the historical fiasco at the time of unveiling the Oscar winner for the best film
Warren Beatty and Faye Dunaway will return to present that category in the This Sunday's ceremony, reported the TMZ portal, specialized in celebrity news.

According to sources of the publication, Beatty and Dunaway appeared today in the rehearsals at the Dolby Theater and prepared the great moment of the gala. Testimonials say that both recited their sentences on a couple of occasions and ended quickly.

"Present is much better the second time," said the famous actress on stage, according to the story on the web. Beatty answered next: "The winner is 'Gone With the Wind'", continuing with the comic tone that the producers of the ceremony seem to adopt with this nod to what happened a year ago. According to the sources of the portal, the writers could still modify those jokes until Sunday.

The historical error when announcing the award for the best film in the 89 edition of the Oscars arrived in a bizarre situation, with Warren Beatty and Faye Dunaway as protagonists.

The veteran actor opened the envelope with the name of the winner and threw a gesture of surprise around him.

The couple had been delivered of the wrong envelope. However, no one from the Hollywood Academy spoke, so Beatty went on and handed the envelope to Dunaway, who read the name "La La Land", which appeared next to Emma Stone's, the award given just before. [19659003] The winner in the category of best film was really "Moonlight", something that was known after some moments of confusion.

Mom has committed suicide, can you pass me the turkey?

Mom has committed suicide, can you pass me the turkey?

The world will be strange, okay, but the stories of José Ovejero (Madrid, 1958), even more. The volume thus titled,                      Strange world  (Pages of Foam), collects 19 stories in which the tragic or absurd provoke the permanent …

The million dollar question: How many fingers do you see here?

The million dollar question: How many fingers do you see here?

This article belongs to the fictional series Especies Urbanas, authored by John William Wilkinson and published on Sundays on the La Vanguardia website. Due to the blatantly partisan nature of politics throughout Spain, the only unavoidable requirement of their lordships to occupy a seat is […]

The incredible faces that Daniel Day-Lewis has given us

The incredible faces that Daniel Day-Lewis has given us

If there is an actor of meticulous and selective method to unsuspected limits, capable of getting into the skin of his characters until he even gets sick for them, that is Daniel Day-Lewis . With nearly forty years of career behind him, this London 60-year-old who holds the record of being the only winner of three Oscars in the category of best actor, has said goodbye to the big screen after shooting invisible thread by Paul Thomas Anderson, opening this Friday

Day-Lewis in a frame from 'The invisible thread'
(Laurie Sparham / AP)

With a reputation for reserved and little lover of nightlife, his relationship with the entertainment industry comes from family, as his maternal grandfather, Sir Michael Bacon, was a renowned film producer. His father, Cecil Day-Lewis, was a poet of Queen Elizabeth II and his mother Jill Balcon was a renowned theater actress. With this background running through his veins, Daniel trained in the best drama schools and broke into the big screen as a teenager with a fleeting role in the film Sunday Bloody Sunday (1971). His first credited appearance was in Gandhi (1982), by Richard Attenborough, in which he played a young man who insults the prophet of peace. Since then he has done all kinds of roles, showing himself especially in dramas.

 Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(Matt Sayles / © GTRESONLINE)

Despite not being the first time he announces his farewell to the world of acting, last June he glimpsed in an interview that on this occasion was serious. "Before making the movie, I did not know I was going to stop acting. I know Paul and I laughed a lot before making the movie. And then we stopped laughing, because we were both overwhelmed by a feeling of sadness. That surprised us: we did not realize what we had given birth to. It was hard to live with it. It still is, "he told W Magazine .

On the occasion of the arrival of The invisible thread to the halls, we take the opportunity to review the most memorable performances of this unique actor.

My beautiful laundry (1985)

Under the direction of Stephen Frears, the actor became a young right-winger who maintained a homosexual relationship with Omar, a former schoolmate of Pakistani origin. Set in Thatcher's time, the love these professing young men who ran a laundry scandalized their respective families.

A room with a view (1985)

In this period love story directed by James Ivory had an secondary role as Cecil Vyse, a rich and extremely educated man who offered marriage to the character of Helena Bonham Carter. Based on the E.M. novel Foster, the film received excellent reviews and numerous awards.

The unbearable lightness of being (1987)

Philip Kaufman adapted to the big screen the famous Milan Kundera novel in which Day-Lewis played Tomas, a surgeon womanizer of Prague who loves to discover in each woman what makes her different in privacy. With a great philosophical load and high doses of eroticism, Day-Lewis formed a loving trio with Juliette Binoche and Lena Olin that made sparks fly.

Under Jim Sheridan, he offered an interpretative recital in this emotional story of overcoming the Irish painter and writer Christy Brown (1932-1981), afflicted with cerebral palsy, who could only control his left foot. Day-Lewis, who spent months in a wheelchair to prepare his character, took all the important prizes, including his first Oscar for the best actor, and began to write with gold his name in the movie mecca.

The Last Mohican (1992)

Michael Mann gave him the role of Hawkeye (Hawkeye Eye), a white man adopted by the Mohican Indians who saved the daughters of a British officer and escorted them to a strong Englishman Besieged by French and ferrets. This romantic adventure film set in North America in the mid-eighteenth century, it was paired with Madeleine Stowe and over time has become one of the references of the genre, thanks especially to the beautiful soundtrack prepared by Trevor Jones and Randy Edelman

The Age of Innocence (1993)

Martin Scorsese signed him to play Newland Archer, an heir trapped in the dichotomy of loving the sweet woman who represents Winona Ryder's May Welland or who He has stolen his heart (the unattainable Ellen Olenska from Michelle Pfeiffer) in this brilliant film based on the novel by Edith Wharton about the New York upper class of the late nineteenth century. The actor managed at all times to transmit the torment that invaded his character. For his work he was nominated for Bafta and was named British actor of the year by the Circle of Critics of London.

In the name of the father (1993)

In this prison drama based on real events he returned to coincide with the director Jim Sheridan to give life to Gerry Conlon, a young man who is accused of participating in a terrorist attack and sentenced to life imprisonment by mistake with "the four of Guildford." With the help of an attorney dedicated to the cause (Emma Thompson), Gerry sets out to prove his innocence, clear his father's name and make public the truth about one of the most regrettable legal errors in the recent history of Ireland. The film offered a beautiful paternal-filial relationship between the characters of Day-Lewis, who opted for his second Oscar, and Postlethwaite.

Again with Sheridan behind the camera and with the IRA as a starting point, he embodied a man who left prison after 14 years behind bars and tried to start a new life by opening a boxing place to train young promises. However, his past as an activist of the terrorist band did not make it easy for him. Emily Watson was his old girlfriend and they both fell in love again.

Scorsese trusted him again to play Bill 'the Butcher', the bloodthirsty leader of a band that defended New York from the arrival of the immigrants Leonardo DiCaprio was in charge of interpreting the Irishman Amsterdam Vallon, a young man who fought for his freedom and in passing wanted to kill Bill for killing his father. Day-Lewis drew a wicked character with big mustaches and top hat capable of killing without mercy for the pleasure of having power. He won his third Oscar nomination.

Wells of Ambition (2007)

His second Oscar was achieved in the role of another man of a dramatic and ambitious nature in the magnificent work of Paul Thomas Anderson that adapted the novel by Sinclair Upton Oil (1927). Daniel Plainview is a sullen and miserly oil man who, as he gains fortune, loses in values ​​and principles. A story set in Texas at the beginning of the 20th century about family, greed and religion.

In the skin of Abraham Lincoln by Steven Spielberg he obtained his third golden statuette. The film is not far from the most outstanding of the director of The Pentagon files but Day-Lewis once again demonstrated that there is no character that can resist him.

His farewell to cinema is marked by the filming of this film that revolves around a famous London couturier of the 50s who sees how his planned and meticulous life changes overnight when he falls in love with a young woman who becomes a muse and a lover The work of Paul Thomas Anderson is inspired by Balenciaga and to thoroughly prepare his role, Day-Lewis received dressmaking classes until he was able to recreate with his own hands a dress of the famous Spanish couturier.

The best-selling books of the week (January 20, 2018)

The best-selling books of the week (January 20, 2018)

The greatest deeds and the most unusual records have always been quoted in the publishing market and in the favor of the readers. This week's non-fiction lists reflect this, where on one side we see the 'Guinness World Records 2018' well located and, on the […]